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«Журнал Министерства народного просвещения» – педагогический научный журнал.

E-ISSN 2413-7294
Периодичность – 2 раза в год.

Издается с 2014 года.

2 September 25, 2017


Articles and Statements

1. Mikhail V. Boguslavskiy
Justification of Russian Education Development Perspective by the Outstanding National Teacher-Enlightener Prince V.F. Odoevsky

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 65-74.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.65CrossRef

Abstract:
The article gives a generalized description of the pedagogical views of the outstanding Russian teacher-enlightener of the nineteenth century. V.F. Odoevsky, which is significant, since there is still no adequate assessment of the place and value of the thinker in the domestic pedagogical tradition. This is due, first of all, to the polyphony of its multifaceted creative heritage, which couldn’t be reduced to a specific subject content and, in its essence, involves polydisciplinary research. The periodization of the historiography of the study of pedagogical views and enlightening activity of V.F. Odoevskyis substantiated, which organically includes three periods: pre-revolutionary, Soviet and post-soviet. Literary and pedagogical creativity of the thinker, who holds the priority of creating a new genre in children's literature – a science fiction tale with clearly expressed genre features is characterized. The totality of his views on the problems of religious, moral and civic education, which have an enduring significance, is presented. Conceptualized a set of approaches to creating a didactic model of general education, which has great predictive value. It is proved that V.F. Odoevsky has formed the leading directions in the formation and development of humanistic pedagogy in Russia in subsequent epochs: the relationship of learning with life and the application of this theory in educational practice; on the true education of children on the basis of progressive scientific knowledge; on a comprehensive and careful study of the psychology of children of different ages; on the development of attention, observation, interest, cognitive activity and independence of pupils on the basis of the didactic principles developed by him (visibility of training, timeliness, consistency, scientific character, combination of formal and material in education). The author substantiates the assertion that on the whole the pedagogical concept of V.F. Odoevsky was a kind of matrix for the development of native education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510831619.pdf
Number of views: 1415      Download in PDF


2. Ekaterina Y. Zharova
About Science Students and Training Biology Successors at Natural Departments of the Universities of Russian Empire

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 75-87.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.75CrossRef

Abstract:
Physic and Mathematics faculties appeared in the universities of Russian Empire at the beginning of XIX century and Natural departments appeared only at the ending of the 1830-s – beginning of the 1840-s. That’s why professors’ positions of specialization in biology were taken by persons with medical education. Utilitarian view at the University was attractive for noble students, who didn’t want to make a career in science that was the reason for prevalence of the clergy and foreigners/emigrants’ children among biology professors at the second quarter of XIX century. Among four biology professors of the 1830-50-s who didn’t have medical education only two had graduated from Natural departments of Russian Universities, one was a graduating student of Main Pedagogical Institute, one more was a graduating student of Dorpat University. Only in the 1860-s situation was changed: science as an occupation for nobles became not “dishonourable”, general success of science gave a birth to the great interest in society and provoked young men to enter Natural departments and the development of educational and scientific institutions needs skilled personnel. As a result of these processes at the second half of XIX century the absolute majority of biology professors from Natural departments of Russian Universities were their graduating students.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510831667.pdf
Number of views: 1367      Download in PDF


3. Oksana V. Ishchenko
The Statement of Religious and Educational Work in Secondary and Primary Schools of Siberia at the end of the 19th century – beginning of the 20th century

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 88-104.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.88CrossRef

Abstract:
in secondary General education, secondary and elementary professional education institutions of Siberia and its influence on the mood of pupils in the region in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The main sources were: the laws of the Russian Empire, the religious composition of students, minutes of meetings of the pedagogical councils of the petition of the students stored in the archive funds of educational institutions of Siberia, the documents of law enforcement, letters and orders of the Trustee of the West Siberian school district. The authors make a conclusion that at the turn of XIX – XX centuries in the schools of Siberia religious and moral direction was the main direction of educational work with pupils. This forcible imposition of Christianity in school, lack of consideration for the multi-religious composition of pupils and forcing them to the performance of religious duties has caused protest on the part of many pupils of educational institutions, which demanded the abolition of compulsory attendance by pupils of the Church, of non-requirement of observance of posts and study of God's Law. Analysis of changes in the production of religious and educational work in educational establishments of Siberia allowed to the conclusion that the forcible imposition of Orthodoxy in the environment of pupils led to the opposite result. The effectiveness of religious-educational work in the school was low.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510831752.pdf
Number of views: 1309      Download in PDF


4. Alexander A. Bessolitsyn
Industrial Education in Pre-revolutionary Russia: Discussions about the Relation between the General and Special Education

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 105-117.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.105CrossRef

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to research the activity of the state authorities and social organizations aimed at the establishment of the system of industrial education during the economic modernization in Russia at the edge of XIX–XX centuries. The research is based on the discussions about the relation between the general and special education, raised in the specialized journals devoted to the problems of technical and commercial education, as well as the discussion of these problems in the course of the activity of the branch congresses of entrepreneurs, who were potentially interested in training of the new employees for the developing industry. The respective debates reflected the willingness of the state and society to solve the problem of increasing the quality of human capital, which should have helped to complete the programme of the country’s social and economic development. The author makes a conclusion that, taking into account the low level of the general education, both among the workers at industrial enterprises and among the whole country’s population, the educational institutions of technical and commercial specialization faced the problem to determine the optimal educational programme which was easy to learn for the students of specialized educational institutions taking into account the significant deficit of knowledge received at general school. This situation resulted in the fact that Russian technical institutions and high schools had to compensate the deficit of humanitarian education by means of widening the list of general theoretical disciplines which, in its turn, resulted in the increased normative terms of education and, in this regard, negatively affected the speed of development of special education. The other side of this problem was the ambition to develop the own original model of training employees for the developing industry, having not only specialized knowledge but also a solid general theoretical education, which definitely increased the quality of human capital during the transformation of the agricultural state into the industrial one.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510831805.pdf
Number of views: 1288      Download in PDF


5. Alexis A. Streltsov
Professional Formation of School-Leavers of Specialized Secondary Educational Establishments in the Russian Empire

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 118-132.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.118CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the elementary military and secondary spiritual education in the Russian empire. Nearly 2400 profiles are analysed. The article consists of two parts. In each a brief history of the educational establishment is given, as well as the technique of the investigation in relation to its peculiarities. The author indicates similar traits as well as differences, which allow implementing a comparative approach to these two types of educational establishments. The period under review is about 110 years, from the first decade of the XIX the century to the year 1918. Within it the author discriminates three stages that more or less coincide for both types of specialized secondary educational establishments: the first comprises the reign of Alexander I, Nicholas I and the early reign of Alexander II, who initiated liberal reforms in many spheres, including education, in the Russian empire (second stage). The last one is all about the reign of Alexander III and Nicholas II. The author shows that there is a direct correspondence between the type of education and its influence on the school-leavers’ choice of profession or career and on the social and cultural development of the country in the XIXth – early XXth century.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510831896.pdf
Number of views: 1278      Download in PDF


6. Alexey N. Grebenkin
Negative Traditions of Pupils of Orel Bakhtin Cadet Corps at the beginning of the XX century

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 133-144.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.133CrossRef

Abstract:
This article presents the attempt of reconstruction of negative traditions existed in Orel Bakhtin cadet corps in the beginning of XX cent. The study is based on unpublished documents – the journals of pedagogical committee of the corps. The results of study show that governmental politics which was aimed at the extermination of bad tempers of pupils caused the significant transformation of sociocultural space of Orel Bakhtin cadet corps. The main reason of it was the coordinated work of pedagogical staff headed by V.L. Lobachevsky (in 1902-1905) and R.C. Luther (in 1905-1917). Proper measures based on instructions of the General department of military schools allowed to moderate the forms of hazing between pupils, give the positive direction to the tradition of comradeship and almost completely eliminate the homoerotic expressions. These achievements conduced to the improvement of the moral climate in the institution, helped to increase the class discipline and academic performance, promoted the cultural and aesthetic development of pupils. Results of this study may be used in the course of organization of pedagogical activity in contemporary military educational institutions of different levels, as well as in boarding educational institutions.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510832028.pdf
Number of views: 1316      Download in PDF


7. Tahir M. Aminov
Training of Specialists for Trade and Public Catering in the Regions of the USSR in 1940–1960-ies (by the example of the Ufa School of Trade and Culinary Apprenticeship)

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 145-157.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.145CrossRef

Abstract:
The article, based on archival and little-known published materials are considered features of system of training of specialists for trade and catering in the regions of the Soviet Union in the war and postwar years. The basis for the analysis is taken one of the oldest educational institutions of the Bashkir ASSR, Ufa school of trade and culinary apprenticeship. Emphasis is placed on historical and pedagogical aspects of the functioning of this institution. So, there were considered in detail the target, substantial, technological and effective components of the educational process at different stages of its development. The main focus of this process was the formation of a holistic personality of future specialist. The theory of learning was closely connected with the practice, and all activities of the institution were organized on the basis of accumulated teaching science experience. One of the strengths of the training of future professionals was education, which had systematic nature.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510832116.pdf
Number of views: 1311      Download in PDF


8. Veronika V. Alekseeva
Development of Preschool of Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the years of work of the Minister of Education F.Kh. Mustafina

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 158-163.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.158CrossRef

Abstract:
In the article, on the basis of archrival’s documents, the contribution of the minister of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic F. Kh. Mustafina to the system of children's preschool education of the republic is analyzed. The chronological framework of work covers the period from 1955 to 1971. At this time in the country a number of the important normative documents which exerted impact on the system of preschool education were adopted. 1) Two types of preschool institution were united in one establishment: children's day nursery and kindergarten. 2) Approbation is carried out and the new "Program of education in kindergarten" is adopted to work. 3) The republican meeting on aesthetic education of children which was attended by teachers from the neighboring areas is organized. 4) The attention to the identity of the teacher was paid: his initiative, pedagogical skill, general political preparation. 5) Develops sensory education of children. 6) In physical training the main attention is directed to mobile sports: skis and skating. 7) Educational process is built about accounting of aesthetic education. 8) The attention of teachers is drawn of a children's game. 9) Kindergartens build according to special standard projects. 10) Dark furniture is replaced with shelves of light colors. 11) Inside the kindergarten there are artistic folk art. 12) The yard of kindergarten, where you can play from a place for childish sports. 13) The experience of teachers was recognized at the exhibition of achievements of the national economy of the USSR.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510832170.pdf
Number of views: 1306      Download in PDF


9. Timur M. Khusyainov
The Process of Informatization of Secondary Education in Latvia (1997–2016): Statistical Analysis

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 164-170.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.164CrossRef

Abstract:
The subject of this article is the process of informatization of secondary education in the Republic of Latvia. This issue has a long history and goes back to the Soviet period. However, the process of informatization was most developed in the second half of the 1990s. Then, in 1997, a major project was launched in Latvia on the informatization of education, which covered the main subjects of education (students of schools, students, teachers), the educational process (use of ICT in teaching, development of teaching materials), educational institutions of all levels and throughout the country. The basis of this study was the statistical data for the period from 1999 to 2016 collected by the Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (SCB), as well as reports on the implementation of the project for the informatization of education.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510833586.pdf
Number of views: 1305      Download in PDF


10. Alexander Yu. Morozov
Textbooks and Manuals on Regional and Local History of Russia in the XXI century

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 171-184.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.171CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is an overview of regional history textbooks and learning guides. We have chosen 95 items that were issued during the period from 2000 to 2016 inclusively in different territories of Russian Federation. This source base is very various and it helped us to understand the situation about educational literature on regional history. Basing on the completed analysis, we defined the main aims of learning the history of native land using contemporary textbooks and learning guides. These aims are: forming a knowledge about the importance of native land, its achievements and problems; development of the ability to work with sources on lessons and after classes. To solve these problems we tried to include regional history in the system of Russian history teaching. We tried to take into account students’ knowledge level and age features. We foreseeing the relationship between regional history textbooks (learning guides) and the common course of Russian history. We attempt to aim regional historic courses at using intersubject communications, which are the foundation of integration of students’ knowledge with their practical skills. Nevertheless, these intensions often remain no realized. In connection with this, we suggest to develop a compulsory external examination procedure of regional history textbooks and learning guides with a system of corresponding requirements.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510833701.pdf
Number of views: 1310      Download in PDF


11. Maryna Osiukhina
Media-and Information Literacy: Peculiarities of Definition

Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2017, 4(2): 185-193.
DOI: 10.13187/zhmnp.2017.2.185CrossRef

Abstract:
Nowadays media- and information literacy (MIL) is not only important competence, that promotes critical thinking, evaluation, analysis, effective use of information and interaction with different types of media, but also a catalyst for the development of tolerant, democratic and humanistic societies of knowledge. For this reason it's very important to describe approaches that exist in science to the definition of the concept and compare it to such terms as information and media literacy. This article provides an overview of definitions of concepts which are interested to us, as well as the author's comparison table in which the main concepts, their target audience, main competencies are extracted and compared. Due to the method of comparison, we can conclude that media information literacy is the “umbrella term” that does not include the notions that existed before, but is partly adjacent to them. It is a qualitatively new competence directed to work with information, interaction with the media, including critical thinking skills, understanding, interpreting information in different areas of professional, educational and social activities; including ethical and legal knowledge about information activity. Media- and information literacy gives citizens the opportunities and potential for self-expression and is directed to building a tolerant, pluralistic, civil society of knowledge.

URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510834631.pdf
Number of views: 1273      Download in PDF


12.
full number
URL: http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1510834688.pdf
Number of views: 1487      Download in PDF





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